Tuesday, August 25, 2020

How to use happy memories

The pandemic has been around for over six months now. I have had many things to say about it, but so much was already being said that I didn't feel my contribution would make much of a difference. Readers of this blog and those who know me personally won't be surprised by the positions I wanted to express: support for responsible and cautious behaviour; support for science; opposition to conspiracy theories; and total disgust at the politicization of public health provisions.

I have written before: we are not "all in this together". People are experiencing this pandemic in different ways, depending on their circumstances and location. What I want to write about today can apply to most people, and not only during the pandemic.

Over the past few months, and probably for a long time into the future, we have had restrictions on what we can do, including lockdowns, travel bans, and the closure of many public and cultural places. There have been restrictions on who we can meet. For many, these limitations have been a source of great frustration, loneliness, and even depression. This is quite apart from the impact of job losses and businesses closing down.

My suggestions are relevant to everyone, but in particular to those who currently feel that it's "not fair" that they can't do the things they planned or wanted to do due to restrictions. Many people have been unable to travel for their annual overseas vacation, haven't been able to attend concerts and other cultural events, and have postponed weddings and other large parties. 

What I want to say in such cases is: instead of focusing on what you can't do at the moment, use your happy memories of past experiences to bring you some joy and satisfaction. We are the sum of our life experiences, and every past happy event is still part of us. The feeling of being denied something you thought you were entitled to experience can be replaced by gratitude for the wonderful experiences you've already had.

For those who can't travel, try reliving past adventures. Close your eyes and remember the trip. Use sensory memories: the sights, sounds, feelings, tastes, and smells of the places you visited and things you did there. I can remember vividly drinking tea at Petra while gazing at the incredible rock carvings. The sound of the tourists around me and the bells on the donkeys and camels. The feeling of the heat and dryness. The taste and smell of the tea. 

The imagination is very powerful, and we can make the most of it at times when we are restricted in what we can do physically. To add to this experience of reliving memories, we can look at photos or videos, listen to music, eat foods and smell scents that remind us of these past experiences, and look at souvenirs we brought home. 

We also live at a time where technology can help in so many ways. If you missed a rock concert that was postponed or cancelled, you can probably find a similar concert online to watch. Just pretend you're in the audience and let your imagination make the experience real for you.

Of course, we have all been learning how to stay in touch online with loved ones we can't meet in person. This can be enhanced by talking about shared happy experiences from the past. Reminiscing can strengthen relationships and replace the anxiety of discussing the present and future.

As we learn to appreciate and enjoy our memories, we can be more patient about the current situation and more accepting of the need to find resilience inside ourselves during this challenging time.

Sunday, April 12, 2020

Empathy during a pandemic

The truth is that we are not actually "all in this together". People have the illusion that everyone is in a similar situation at the moment. In fact, we are all having different experiences of the pandemic, the lockdown, and the way we are spending our time.

In order to have real empathy, you have to understand and appreciate the differences between people and their circumstances. I think that extreme situations like this one bring out people's true personalities. Some people are expressing themselves in entitled, judgmental, and misguided or "tone deaf" ways, which shows that they don't have empathy for other people's situations. Here is how these people can learn empathy and change their attitude.

The first group that has been guilty of this sort of lack of empathy includes many wealthy and famous people who have been trying to portray themselves as having the same sort of experiences as the rest of us. They might feel as though they are just ordinary people, but their wealth gives them privileges the majority of the population doesn't share. First and foremost, wealth gives people a sense of security. They are not going to starve or end up homeless or in debt. These are very real concerns for many less privileged people, even some who until recently considered themselves middle-class professionals. Just knowing that you have enough money to last you several years (or decades) even if you never work again is something that the wealthy might not realize they take for granted.

Famous people have been trying to keep the focus on themselves in a very narcissistic way. At times like these, they don't realize that flaunting their luxury homes and exotic lifestyles is certain to alienate many people. Yes, they might be in lockdown like the rest of us, but in much more comfortable circumstances. This is not about you.

What the wealthy can do at this time is donate significant amounts of money to good causes. Vaccine research, hospital funds, any sort of charity. Those who are really empathic will do this quietly, behind the scenes, because it's not about them but about the cause they support. Do it for its own sake, not to promote yourselves!

The wealthy also have the power and influence to work behind the scenes in companies they are involved with to help employees get paid while in lockdown, prevent job losses, and apply generous procedures to staff members who are sick or have sick family members. Caring for the less fortunate is a sign of empathy.

A second example of lack of empathy is a message that has been circulating on social media and has prompted a lot of discussion. I have seen this message, with its reply, but don't know who originated it:

* Edited to add: Here is an article that brings a source for the original quotation, Jeremy Haynes, and in this photo, the response below the deleted line was written by my sister-in-law, Jill Pretorius. I have seen a few different versions with similar sentiments.

The statement "You didn't ever lack the time, you lacked the discipline" is the sort of tough-love motivational nonsense that demonstrates a lack of empathy and sensitivity and judges other people.

The response, that we are going through difficult times and it's not a competition, starts to answer the judgment, but doesn't express the response as clearly as I want to do now.

The original post's assumption is that we are in quarantine and therefore now have time to do the things we used to say we didn't have time to do.

First, not everyone is in lockdown and not everyone who is has time.

There are essential workers who are spending just as much time, if not more, working. They don't have the benefit of this extra time we are all assumed to have.

There are people who are now working from home. While this might save them some commuting time, using the unfamiliar and inefficient online platforms might end up taking just as much time and might be just as exhausting.

There are people who have lost their jobs or their freelance income. So yes, maybe they have more time, but they are likely to be looking for ways to earn some money just to survive, rather than spending time on personal development.

Many people have their children at home with them. It would be nice to imagine that the children spend their usual school hours studying online, but in reality, online learning is not equivalent to being at school and parents have to educate and entertain their children most of the time. This doesn't give them extra time.

The next assumption is that with "discipline" you can achieve what you want in any circumstances. The reality is that for most people, this is not just some free time they can use. Most people are, justifiably, worried about getting sick, about their loved ones getting sick, about being isolated from family and friends, about possibly losing their jobs or income, about the cancellation of important events they had planned, and in some cases they are experiencing strained relations with their family members or roommates as a result of the lockdown.

Discipline alone doesn't enable people to develop the right state of mind to study or set up a business. It's something we can strive for, but not something we must do in order to prove ourselves worthy. Yes, personal growth and development is an ideal, but it should never be something we force ourselves to do if it makes us feel worse as a result. There is no obligation to become more "successful" as a result of this lockdown.

The most important thing we can do right now is follow instructions and reduce the risk of getting sick or infecting other people. We have to take care of ourselves and our families. This includes being empathic and understanding, rather than entitled and judgmental.

Some will be able to take advantage of the situation to develop new skills and work on creative projects. Good for them! But don't assume that those who don't do so "lack discipline". There are many reasons why this is not the ideal time for most people to live up to these high expectations.

If you find yourself wondering why someone does or doesn't do something, think about the whole range of circumstances of that person's life rather than just assuming it's "laziness".

I hope we can all learn to practice more empathy and compassion during this time.

Saturday, March 14, 2020

Being a good person during a pandemic

If the current covid-19 pandemic can teach us one thing, it's mutual co-responsibility. The human race must act together, consistently, to minimize the impact of this virus. This requires us to rethink and change some of our behaviours.

Instead of being individualists existing in competition with each other, we have to be cooperative, community-minded, and aware of the common good. Instead of letting our ego tell us we know what's best for us, we have to listen to experts and put aside our personal preferences for the sake of the good of everyone, particularly those more vulnerable than ourselves.

The pandemic will necessarily change everyone's lives, whether directly, by infecting them or people close to them, or indirectly, by changing their plans and routine. Most of us will feel the economic impact, and whole industries are already suffering.

Some objectively good results are already emerging. Less air travel and more working from home means less air pollution. Awareness of the importance of hand washing and considerate sneezing means improved public hygiene. I'm personally happy that I can now avoid shaking hands with strangers, which has sometimes left me feeling uncomfortable.

Many people have observed that self-isolation and working for home are ideal conditions for introverts, and many of us have already adopted this sort of lifestyle, to a certain extent. The social distancing that is essential now will be more difficult for extroverts and those people who see their role in life as depending on social interactions. I have been thinking of ways for everyone to take this opportunity of changing lifestyles to become better people in the ways most suited to their personality. I hope some of you find inspiration here.

First, it's important to follow the advice of experts. Think of these social distancing recommendations like traffic rules. We all have to follow the rules all the time, so that there's a consistent, predictable behaviour pattern. So work from home if you can, self-isolate if you might have been exposed, wash your hands, cover your mouth when coughing or sneezing, try not to touch your face (this is difficult for everyone), and accept that you can't travel or attend large events for the next while.

There's an element of self-sacrifice in being a good person. This is displayed clearly by accepting the unwelcome changes we have to make for the good of the whole community or even the whole species.

Next, we can find ways to do good that don't involve social interaction. The best thing you can do for other people now is, paradoxically, to avoid direct in-person contact and find alternative ways of staying in touch and helping others. We are fortunate to live in a time when we can easily interact with people at a distance. We can communicate by phone, video calls, email, text, and social media. Those of us who are working from home or self-isolating can take this opportunity to be in touch with people in different ways. You're not completely isolated if you can stay in touch with people around the world.

These technologies can be used for education. Here in Israel, the universities are moving to distance teaching. But people can also teach and study informally from home. If you have a subject you are able to teach, you might be able to find people online who would love to learn from you. And spending more time at home provides a chance to find online resources to learn new things and improve yourself. Educating and improving yourself is always a good thing, and it's never too late to study.

This can also be a time to find ways to help those less fortunate. If you know about people who have lost income as a result of the changes, perhaps you could help them in some way: order them some supplies to be delivered to their home or offer other services. If you know children whose schools have closed, perhaps you could babysit while their parents work (if no isolation is required), or provide education or entertainment remotely.

Being "stuck" at home is also a good time to clean and declutter your house. You can use this time to sort things into piles for recycling and donating or resale. You can also tackle small repairs that you have been postponing. Make your home a more comfortable place where you feel better spending more time.

Some people may find it a novel experience to be spending so much time at home with partners, family members, or roommates. Use this time to get to know each other better and find ways to live and work harmoniously. Be flexible and accepting of your differences.

The guiding principle at this time should be "what can I do to make the world better for all of us?".

Finally, we should all be grateful to members of the healthcare professions and other emergency staff for doing what is necessary for those people who do become infected, at risk to themselves. These people are already doing good in the world. Thank you all!

Friday, February 28, 2020

ITA Conference 2020

This week I attended the annual conference of the Israel Translators Association, held at ZOA House in Tel Aviv.

Day 1: 24 February 2020

The conference opened with a plenary lecture by author and translator Assaf Gavron. Five of his Hebrew books have been translated into 16 languages, and he has translated 22 books from English into Hebrew. He gave us a few examples of the challenges of literary translation and issues in conveying different cultural issues. He akso noted that Hebrew is one of the only languages where books that were translated into Hebrew a few decades ago receive new translations due to the rapid changes in the language.

Next, there was a discussion group hosted by Louis Mitler, where the participants were asked to raise various challenges and solutions in the freelance translation field. The issues ranged from the changing role of the translator in an era of machine translation to accreditation, professional liability insurance, relations with agencies, and membership of translators' organizations like the ITA. It showed that translators face different challenges depending on the stage of their career, their language pairs, and their specialization.

After lunch, Avi Staiman of Academic Language Experts discussed the challenges faced by non-native speakers of English in publishing academic research. He conducted a survey to examine the specific needs of academics, which included the need for greater funding of translation and editing work and the obstacle of journals and publishers assuming that articles by non-native speakers need editing. This lecture was particularly relevant to my specialization.

Next, Yael Cahane-Shadmi spoke about the sensitive issue of conflicting values, when translators find various ethical objections to working on a particular text. Of course, translators can refuse work if they find it conflicts with their personal values, but if they accept it, they must be professional about it and do their best to translate it without letting their different perspective influence the result.

After this lecture, it was my turn to speak. My lecture was about the process of publishing an academic book. It followed a psychology book I translated from the stage of searching for a publisher, through all the additional documents necessary for the query and submission process, the translation itself, proofreading and creating the index, to the publication of the translated book. Many translators are not fully aware of these stages if they only do the translation itself.

Then, Liath Noy discussed the state of translation studies in Israel. She distinguished between studies focused on translation theory and those aimed to prepare translators for an active career. She suggested that translation studies should be more practical and more interdisciplinary, touching upon language skills, cultural differences, data mining, translation software and tools, general and specific knowledge, and business skills.

Day 2: 25 February 2020

The day started with a session by Liron Kranzler-Feldman of Academic Language Experts discussing translator-client relationships from the viewpoint of non-violent communication (NVC). We did an exercise in pairs where we shared a difficult situation with a client and went through the basic steps of observing, identifying feelings, identifying needs, and making a request for action (of the client or of ourselves). This was a useful session for many participants, and I think it's important for all professionals to think about how they communicate and how to resolve any issues without conflict.

Next, Yifat Vered spoke about working with Japanese companies, from her experience of living in Japan for ten years and then helping Israeli companies do business with Japanese companies. She explained the cultural and communication differences between Israel and Japan, and the complexities resulting from the Japanese language and its three alphabets.

Stephen Rifkind considered the customer's perspective when seeking a professional, such as a translator, in order to help us professional understand what customers are looking for. This included aspects such as pricing, website, proof of skill, and flexibility.

Then, Yael Segal gave a complementary lecture about how to reach new customers. She mentioned creating differentiation by having a narrow specialization, finding the sort of marketing that works best, and connecting to other professionals who work with the sort of clients you want.

After lunch, Dolly Baruch spoke about the translation of songs from Arabic to Hebrew. In some cases, only the tune was kept and completely new lyrics were composed. In other cases, the translation tried to be more faithful to the original. It seems that in translating songs, there has to be some compromise between various elements.

Next, Charlotte Gremmen discussed aspects of intersemiotic translation in a Hebrew graphic novel version of The Diary of Anne Frank. In addition to the linguistic translation, this version used visual elements beyond the text in order to convey the story.

Shirley Finzi Loew talked about her translation of an Italian novel that contained Sicilian dialect, and how to represent local dialects in the target language. The options are to leave out this aspect, to add notes explaining it, to use a different register, or to use dialects of the target language. The choice is on a spectrum between an acceptable translation for the target audience and an adequate translation of the source language and culture. In this case, she preferred to reflect the literary style over linguistic accuracy, and used mainly lexical means.

The conference was well-organized and enjoyable. I was happy to give a lecture 12 years after my first lecture at an ITA conference. I look forward to next year's conference.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Mikis Theodorakis Orchestra concert

On November 17th, I accompanied my father to a concert of the music of Mikis Theodorakis, performed by the Mikis Theodorakis Orchestra, with the singers Dimitris Basis and Maria Farandouri, at the Tel Aviv Opera House. The Opera House had great acoustics, and the seating arrangements for wheelchair users were good.

Mikis Theodorakis is one of the greatest composers of Greek music. I grew up listening to some of his albums, both while we still lived in England and after we came to Israel. This was just part of growing up in a philhellenic family. I remember as a young girl asking to listen to "the statue record". Yes, these were vinyl LPs, played on a record player. I knew some Greek music long before I ever visited Greece.

The Mikis Theodorakis Orchestra includes ten musicians on various instruments. It is managed by Margarita Theodorakis, daughter of the composer. The singers Dimitris Basis and Maria Farandouri were excellent.

The concert was arranged by journalist and radio presenter Yaron Enosh, who came onto stage now and then to tell us a bit about the fascinating life story of Theodorakis and to translate or explain some of the lyrics. Of course, one concert cannot encompass all of the work of a prolific composer like Theodorakis. It could only present a selection.

The Mauthausen Trilogy was performed in full. This work is well-known here because of its Holocaust subject matter, and it received a standing ovation.

I personally don't like the habit of the audience's rhythmic clapping during performances, and my non-conformist self refused to participate, even when the clapping was encouraged, especially by Dimitris Basis. But this also highlighted the incongruity of having popular music performed in the formal setting of an Opera House. Had the performance been held in a different setting, the clapping might have felt more appropriate.

I wasn't familiar with all the songs performed, but enjoyed them nonetheless. I also felt frustrated that I was only able to identify a few words or phrases here and there. This concert has reignited my dream of learning Greek, and I hope to do so soon. Presumably most members of the audience knew even less Greek than I did.

The concert ended, predictably, with the song Zorba the Greek. This is such a well-known song that has come to represent Greek music, and it tends to be performed too frequently. It was good to hear it performed as intended by such accomplished musicians.

We were told that photography and audio or video recording were prohibited during the concert, so I only took a photo of the performers bowing at the end of the concert.

I enjoyed this concert, which was both nostalgic, reminding me of my childhood exposure to this composer, and just good music by any measure.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

TIME Magazine's Special Climate Issue 23 September 2019

I don't usually read magazines. But when I saw TIME Magazine's Special Climate Issue in the airport shop when I was returning from Cyprus last month, I felt I had to read it. I spent the wait in the airport and the flight home reading it. It wasn't a light read. The environment and the impact human beings have on it is an issue I've taken very seriously since I was a teenager. The irony of reading a paper magazine on a plane wasn't wasted on me, either!

The magazine addressed many aspects of the climate crisis and many parts of the world. It also featured biographies of 15 women who are changing the world. I want to share a few of the important messages that spoke to me.

In "From the Editor", Edward Felsenthal wrote the following:

Notably, what you will not find in this issue are climate-change skeptics. Core to our mission is bringing together diverse perspectives. Experts can and should debate the best route to mitigating the effects of climate change, but there is no serious doubt that those effects are real. We are witnessing them right in front of us. The science on global warming is settled. There isn't another side, and there isn't another moment. (p. 4).

I was very pleased to read this evidence that journalism is moving away from the misleading idea of "balance", as though all opinions are equally valid and worthy of representation. There is actually such a thing as truth and reality, and those who choose to deny it for reasons of ideology, religion, or financial gain don't deserve to have equal representation in the public sphere.

In an article entitled "Why I have hope for the climate-change battles to come", Al Gore concluded by noting the grass-roots activism, often involving teenagers and young adults:

Saving the future of humanity is a heavy burden for teenagers and 20-somethings to bear. But they are embracing the challenge as if their lives depend on it. The rest of us must follow their lead and act before it's too late. (p. 23).

I have been impressed by the increase in young activism, though I believe that there have always been young, idealistic people involved in environment-related issues. Some people have grown up from teenagers to middle-aged or elderly within the green movement. The reason young people are so active now is that the point of no return is rapidly approaching and they will live with the consequences for longer than the older generations.

Aryn Baker visited Jacobabad, Pakistan, in a piece entitled "The hottest city on earth", and noted:

If the planet continues warming at an accelerated rate, it won't be just the people of Jacobabad who live through 50 ͒ C summers. Everyone will. (p. 26)

As a person who dislikes heat, I find this particularly alarming!

Jane Goodall wrote an insightful essay, "The devastation of climate change is real. But there are reasons to be hopeful". She lists four problems and then four solutions.

In order to slow down climate change, we must solve four seemingly unsolvable problems. We must eliminate poverty. We must change the unsustainable lifestyles of so many of us. We must abolish corruption. And we must think about our growing human population. There are 7.7 billion of us today, and by 2050, the UN predicts there will be 9.7 billion. But I believe we have a window of time to have an impact. (p. 46).
She then lists her four solutions: The resilience of nature; The human brain; Social Media; and the power of young people.

I found it interesting that this was one of the few mentions of the growing human population in the entire magazine. And I wasn't surprised that it came from a conservationist who's highly aware of the impact of habitat loss on all the non-human species of the planet. I think this issue should be taken more seriously by anyone concerned with our future survival.

Michael E. Mann wrote about the balance between individual efforts and the responsibility of corporations and governments in a piece with the pithy title "Paper straws alone won't save the planet".

There is a long history of industry-funded "deflections campaigns" aimed to divert attention from big polluters and place the burden on individuals. Individual action is important and something we should all champion. But appearing to force Americans to give up meat, or travel, or other things central to the lifestyle they've chosen to live is politically dangerous: it plays right into the hands of climate-change deniers whose strategy tends to be to portray climate champions as freedom-hating totalitarians. [...] We need systemic changes that will reduce everyone's carbon footprint, whether or not they care. (p. 52)

I have taken various actions throughout my life, and especially recently, to reduce my impact on the environment. However, I am acutely aware that individual actions are not enough, and that the greed of corporations and the reluctance of governments to intervene in ways that might reduce established industries' profits has a greater negative impact than can be balanced by individuals refusing plastic bags, plastic straws, and single-use bottles (or other such steps). Since corporations are motivated by short-term greed and not a long-term vision of the planet's future, the only way to change things on a large scale is for governments and international bodies to regulate their behaviour.

Angelina Jolie explored the issue of population displacement in "No person is an island". Once again, the relocation of populations from devastated countreis to safer places will need to be solved by governments through international cooperation. She ends her piece:

[...] standing on the sidelines of global efforts is not a morally neutral position: it will negatively affect the lives of millions of people. A nation of use only to itself is not a leading country. As Americans, we have rarely feared exercising our influence on global questions affecting the peace and security of the world as well as our own prosperity. A changing climate should be no different. In the past, America has been a country defined by vision. That still must be our greatest asset. (p. 91)

I wish I could be optimistic about the chances of this happening!

 The issue ends with "A 30-year to-do list" (p. 103), which includes the following 6 goals:
  • Phase out natural gas and eliminate coal;
  • Grow renewables;
  • Chart a path on nuclear;
  • Remove carbon from the atmosphere;
  • Change our agriculture and support trees;
  • Make our energy use more efficient.
Then it explains "How we get there":
  • Government commitments;
  • Corporate commitments;
  • Individual commitments;
  • Encourage innovation.
Once again, I was disappointed not to see any mention of population reduction in this vision. Of course, this should be achieved through individual commitments, not through government intervention such as a one-child policy enforced by law. I just hope our society can become more accepting of the idea of people choosing not to have children, or to have just one child. We can no long afford to apply the biblical injunction "Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth". Human beings have filled it to overflowing, at the expense of other species. Now it's time to think about the size of our population as a whole and the size of our families.

This was a thought-provoking magazine, and I would encourage everyone to seek out information and opinions about various environmental issues. This is something we all can and should address in various ways, before it's too late.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Cyprus, Part Five: Cats of Cyprus

Cyprus likes to call itself "the Island of Love", claiming to be the birthplace of Aphrodite, goddess of love. But it could equally be called "the Island of Cats".

There are cats everywhere: in cities, villages, and archaeological sites. In fact, there are more cats than humans on the island: the human population is about 1.2 million, while the estimated number of cats is 1.5 million!

During our visit, we came across two interesting stories relating to cats in Cyprus. In Limassol Archaeological Museum, we saw a cast of the skeleton of one of the earliest domesticated cats, which was buried with a human. The remains are dated to 9500-9000 B.C.E., which is about 5,000 years earlier than the well-known domestication of cats in Egypt. This discovery is relatively recent, and while it has been mentioned in some cat books I have read, such as The Lion in the Living Room by Abigail Tucker, this came as a surprise. I always look for cat-related items in museums, and most often find depictions of lions or Egyptian cat art. This time, one of the first items we saw was the cat skeleton with its explanation. This really made my day.

The other story was that cats were introduced to Cyprus by St. Helena in 328 C.E. to hunt the venomous snakes that were overpopulating as the result of a drought. There is a monastery called St. Nicholas of the Cats, where the cats are considered the descendents of these cats. It's hard to believe that cats would be effective in eradicating the snake population, but they were probably beneficial in hunting various types of vermin.

While tourists like me who love cats enjoy seeing, photographing, and sometimes touching cats while travelling, this situation is not actually in the cats' best interest. Like other Mediterranean locations, Cyprus is clearly experiencing cat overpopulation, and most of the cats end up suffering. I hope that there will be increasing awareness of the need to implement TNR and support managed community cat colonies.